Potential Use of Underutilised Mushroom Stems in Meat Products and Meat Analogues: A Mini Review

Total Views: 390 | Total Downloads: 212


  • HANA SYAFIQAH SAYEED IBRAHIM Food Biotechnology Programme, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
  • NUR HUDA FAUJAN Food Biotechnology Programme, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.




mushroom waste, mushrooms products, meat plant-based alternative, underutilised mushroom stems, vegetarian meat


The demand for meat has gradually increased throughout the years, and it is more widely ingested than plant products due to its sensory qualities as well as its high nutritional content, mainly protein. However, meat is low in calcium, dietary fibre, and vitamin C. Consumers' increased awareness of the possible links between nutrition and health has recently led to major dietary changes toward healthier food options. Furthermore, rising meat prices, vegetarianism, concerns about animal suffering, and sustainability issues have driven market trends toward meat alternatives from plant sources. As such, mushrooms are regarded as one of the healthier ingredients due to their nutritive, bioactive, and therapeutic values. The fibrous structure mimics the texture of meat and possesses an umami flavour, which imparts a meaty taste to the food products. Globally, Asian countries generate the highest percentage of overall mushroom production. The application of mushrooms, however, is limited to the fruiting bodies rather than the stems, which also contain high dietary fibre content. The stems are often discarded as food waste due to their tough texture. Researchers have begun to use edible mushroom waste and their by-products, especially stems, to create value-added products in a variety of sectors, such as the food industry, owing to their nutritional values and contributions to the circular economy and environmental protection. Thus, the primary intent of this review is to discuss the potential of underutilised mushroom stems in meat products.


Download data is not yet available.


Cision PRNewswire, "Worldwide Demand for Meat Products Steadily Rising," FinancialNewsMedia.com, May 27, 2020, accessed March 4, 2023, https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/worldwide-demand-for-meat-products-steadily-rising-301065720.html.

Montes, A. P., E. Rangel-Vargas, J. M. Lorenzo, L. Romero, and E. M. Santos, "Edible Mushrooms as a Novel Trend in the Development of Healthier Meat Products," Current Opinion in Food Science 37 (February 2020): 118-124, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cofs.2020.10.004.

Das, A. K., P. K. Nanda, P. Dandapat, S. Bandyopadhyay, P. Gullón, G. K. Sivaraman, D. J. McClements, B. Gullón, and J. M. Lorenzo, "Edible Mushrooms as Functional Ingredients for Development of Healthier and More Sustainable Muscle Foods: A Flexitarian Approach," Molecules 26, no. 9 (April 2021): 2463, https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092463.

Joshi, V. K., and S. Kumar, "Meat Analogues: Plant-Based Alternatives to Meat Products - A Review," International Journal of Food Fermentation and Technology 5, no. 2 (December 2015): 107-119, http://doi.org/10.5958/2277-9396.2016.00001.5.

Michel, F., C. Hartmann, and M. Siegrist, "Consumers' Associations, Perceptions and Acceptance of Meat and Plant-Based Meat Alternatives," Food Quality and Preference 87 (January 2021): 104063, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2020.104063.

Sekino, N., and Z. Jiang, "Fuel and Material Utilisation of a Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) Mushroom Bed Derived from Hardwood Chips I: Characteristics of Calorific Value in Terms of Elemental Composition and Ash Content," Journal of Wood Science 67, no. 1 (January 2021): 1-10, https://doi.org/10.1186/s10086-020-01935-7.

Fortune Business Insight, "The Global Mushroom Market is Projected to Grow from 15.25 Million Tonnes in 2021 to 24.05 Million Tonnes in 2028 at a CAGR of 6.74% in Forecast Period 2021-2028," accessed May 9, 2023, https://www.fortunebusinessinsights.com/industry-reports/mushroom-market-100197, April 2022.

Wan Rosli, W. I., M. A. Solihah, M. Aishah, N. A. Nik Fakurudin, and S. S. J. Mohsin, "Colour, Textural Properties, Cooking Characteristics and Fiber Content of Chicken Patty Added with Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju)," International Food Research Journal 18, no. 2 (April 2011): 621-627.

Park, G., S. Oh, S. Park, Y. Kim, Y. Park, Y. Kim, J. Lee, H. Lee, and J. Choi, "Physicochemical Characteristics and Storage Stability of Hybrid Beef Patty Using Shiitake Mushroom (Lentinus edodes)," Journal of Food Quality 2023, Article ID 7239709 (February 2023): 10 pages, https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/7239709.

Guo, J., M. Zhang, and Z. Fang, "Valorisation of Mushroom By Products: A Review," Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 102, no. 13 (April 2022): 5593-5605, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11946.

Mahfuz, S., H. Song, Y. Miao, and Z. Liu, "Dietary Inclusion of Mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) Stem Waste on Growth Performance and Immune Responses in Growing Layer Hens," Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 99, no. 2 (January 2019): 703-710, https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9236.

Banerjee, D. K., A. K. Das, R. Banerjee, M. Pateiro, P. K. Nanda, Y. P. Gadekar, S. Biswas, D. J. McClements, and J. M. Lorenzo, "Application of Enoki Mushroom (Flammulina Velutipes) Stem Wastes as Functional Ingredients in Goat Meat Nuggets," Foods 9, no. 4 (April 2020): 432, https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040432.

Paul, V. "Mushroom Products." In Mushrooms of India, edited by S. Sharma, M. Singh, S. Prasad, and H. Rathore, vol. 1, 254-262. India: I, IIT Delhi, 2016.

Valverde, M. E., T. Hernández-Pérez, and O. Paredes-López, "Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life," International Journal of Microbiology 2015, Article ID 376387, 14 pages (2015), https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/376387.

Ma, G., W. Yang, L. Zhao, F. Pei, D. Fang, and Q. Hu, "A Critical Review on the Health Promoting Effects of Mushrooms Nutraceuticals," Food Science and Human Wellness 7, no. 2 (June 2018): 125-133, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2018.05.002.

Samsudin, N. I. P., and N. Abdullah, "Edible Mushrooms from Malaysia: A Literature Review on Their Nutritional and Medicinal Properties," International Food Research Journal 26, no. 1 (February 2019): 11-31.

Rosmiza, M. Z., W. P. Davies, C. R. Rosniza-Aznie, M. J. Jabil, and M. Mazdi, "Prospects for Increasing Commercial Mushroom Production in Malaysia: Challenges and Opportunities," Mediterranean Journal of Science Social 7, no. 1 S1 (January 2016): 406-415, https://doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n1s1p406.

Feeney, M. J., J. Dwyer, C. M. Hasler-Lewis, J. A. Milner, M. Noakes, S. Rowe, M. Wach, R. B. Beelman, J. Caldwell, M. T. Cantorna, and L. A. Castlebury, "Mushrooms and Health Summit Proceedings," The Journal of Nutrition 144, no. 7 (July 2014): 1128S-1136S, https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.190728.

Okafor, J. N. C., G. I. Okafor, A. U. Ozumba, and G. N. Elemo, "Quality Characteristics of Bread Made from Wheat and Nigerian Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus plumonarius) Powder," Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 11, no. 1 (2012): 5-10, https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2012.5.10.

Olawuyi, I. F., and W. Y. Lee, "Quality and Antioxidant Properties of Functional Rice Muffins Enriched with Shiitake Mushroom and Carrot Pomace," International Journal of Food Science & Technology 54, no. 7 (March 2019): 2321-2328, https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.14155.

Lu, X., M. A. Brennan, L. Serventi, S. Mason, and C. S. Brennan, "How the Inclusion of Mushroom Powder Can Affect the Physicochemical Characteristics of Pasta," International Journal of Food Science & Technology 51, no. 11 (October 2016): 2433-2439, https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13246.

Lu, X., M. A. Brennan, L. Serventi, S. Mason, and C. S. Brennan, "Enrichment of Extruded Snack Products with Co-products from Chestnut Mushroom (Agrocybe aegerita) Production: Interactions Between Dietary Fiber, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Glycemic Load," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60, no. 17 (March 2012): 4396-4401, https://doi.org/10.1021/jf3008635.

Hiranpradith, V., N. Therdthai, and A. Soontrunnarudrungsri, "Effect of Steaming and Microwave Heating on Taste of Clear Soup with Split-Gill Mushroom Powder," Foods 12, no. 8 (April 2023): 1685 (18 pages), https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12081685.

Ogidi, C. O., A. O. Ogunlade, R. S. Bodunde, and O. M. Aladejana, "Evaluation of Nutrient Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Wheat Cookies Fortified with Mushroom (Termitomyces robustus) and Edible Insects," Journal of Culinary Science & Technology, pp. 1-19 (February 2023), https://doi.org/10.1080/15428052.2023.2181253.

Borokini, F. B., L. Lajide, F. Gbenga-Fabusiwa, and M. Oloye-Quadri, "Assessment of Nutritional and Sensory Qualities of Whole Grains Cookies Formulated from Vegetables and Mushrooms," Caliphate Journal of Science and Technology 5, no. 1 (January 2023), https://doi.org/10.4314/cajost.v5i1.10.

Prodhan, U. K., K. M. M. R. Linkon, M. F. Al-Amin, and M. J. Alam, "Development and Quality Evaluation of Mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) Enriched Biscuits," Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 27, no. 8 (July 2015): 542-547, https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.2015.04.082.

Ayimbila, F., and S. Keawsompong, "Nutritional Quality and Biological Application of Mushroom Protein as a Novel Protein Alternative," Current Nutrition Reports 12, no. 2 (April 2023): 290-307, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13668-023-00468-x.

Singh, M. "Mushrooms for Nutrition and Entrepreneurship." In Vegetables for Nutrition and Entrepreneurship, edited by B. Singh and P. Kalia, 361-387. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore, 2023.

Vetter, J. "Data on Sodium Content of Common Edible Mushrooms," Food Chemistry 81, no. 4 (June 2003): 589-593, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00501-0.

Inguglia, E. S., Z. Zhang, B. K. Tiwari, J. P. Kerry, and C. M. Burgess, "Salt Reduction Strategies in Processed Meat Products – A Review," Trends in Food Science & Technology 59 (January 2017): 70-78, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2016.10.016.

Jo, K., J. Lee, and S. Jung, "Quality Characteristics of Low-Salt Chicken Sausage Supplemented with a Winter Mushroom Powder," Korean Journal of Food Science of Animal Resource 38, no. 4 (August 2018): 768-779, https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2018.e15.

Pil-Nam, S., K. M. Park, G. H. Kang, S. H. Cho, B. Y. Park, and Van-Ba, "The Impact of Addition of Shiitake on Quality Characteristics of Frankfurter During Refrigerated Storage," LWT-Food Science and Technology 62, no. 1 (June 2015): 62-68, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.01.032.

Choe, J., J. Lee, K. Jo, C. Jo, M. Song, and S. Jung, "Application of Winter Mushroom Powder as an Alternative to Phosphates in Emulsion-Type Sausages," Meat Science 143 (September 2018): 114-118, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2018.04.038.

Wang, X., P. Zhou, J. Cheng, Z. Chen, and X. Liu, "Use of Straw Mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea) for the Enhancement of Physicochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Profiles of Cantonese Sausages," Meat Science 146 (December 2018): 18–25, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2018.07.033.

Dosh, K. S., N. N. Tawfiq, and S. H. Jabbar, "Preparation of Modified Chicken Burger by Partial Replacement of Chicken Meat with Powdered Oyster Mushroom and Study Its Physical and Sensory Properties," Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Science 74, no. 7 (Special Issue, 2016): 138-143, https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.12178.

Ma, M. H., J. Y. Heo, C. Lee, Y. M. Lo, and B. Moon, "Quality and Sensory Characterization of White Jelly Mushroom (Tremella fuciformis) as a Meat Substitute in Pork Patty Formulation," Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 38, no. 3 (August 2014): 1018-1023, https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.12178.

Steinfeld, H., P. Gerber, T. Wassenaar, V. Castel, M. Rosales, and C. J. De Haan, "Livestock’s Long Shadow," FAO: Rome, Italy, pp. 1-26, Retrieved on 5th June 2023 from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/climatechange/doc/FAO%20report%20executive%20summary.pdf, 2006.

Husain, H., and N. Huda-Faujan, "Quality Evaluation of Imitation Chicken Nuggets from Grey Oyster Mushroom Stems and Chickpea Flour," Malaysian Applied Biology 49, no. 3 (October 2020): 61-69, https://doi.org/10.55230/mabjournal.v49i3.1542.

Husain, H., and N. Huda-Faujan, "Potential Application of Grey Oyster Mushroom Stems as Halal Meat Replacer in Imitation Chicken Nuggets," Food Research 4 (Suppl. 1) (February 2020): 179-186, https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.4(S1).S18.

Van Ba, H., H. W. Seo, S. H. Cho, Y. S. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. S. Ham, B. Y. Park, and S. P. Nam, "Antioxidant and Anti-Foodborne Bacteria Activities of Shiitake By-Product Extract in Fermented Sausages," Food Control 70 (December 2016): 201-209, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.05.053.

Barshteyn, V., and T. Krupodorova, "Utilisation of Agro-Industrial Waste by Higher Mushrooms: Modern View and Trends," The Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 5, no. 6 (June 2016): 563-577, https://doi.org/10.15414/jmbfs.2016.5.6.563-577.

Ogbu, C. C., and S. N. Okechukwu, "Agro-Industrial Waste Management: The Circular and Bioeconomic Perspective." In Agricultural Waste - New Insights, edited by F. Ahmad and M. Sultan. Intech Open, February 2023, https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.109181.

Fungus Chain, "Mushroom Waste Applied to the Food Sector," March 8, 2021. Retrieved on July 7, 2023, from https://funguschain.eu/news/mushroom-waste-applied-to-the-food-sector/, March 2021.

Tanri, G. T., "Miana Leaves & Meatball Analogue Vegetarian Pie," Diploma Report, Indonesia: Ottimmo International, November 2022. Retrieved from http://repository.ottimmo.ac.id/820/2/GLAD-EXECUTIVE%20SUMMARY.pdf.

Wu, X., W. Guan, R. Yan, J. Lei, L. Xu, and Z. Wang, "Effects of UV-C on Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolics and Main Phenolic Compounds of the Melanin Biosynthesis Pathway in Different Tissues of Button Mushroom," Postharvest Biology and Technology 118 (August 2016): 51-58, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2016.03.017.

Buruleanu, L. C., C. Radulescu, A. A. Georgescu, F. A. Danet, R. L. Olteanu, C. M. Nicolescu, and I. D. Dulama, "Statistical Characterisation of the Phytochemical Characteristics of Edible Mushroom Extracts," Analytical Letters 51, no. 7 (January 2018): 1039-1059, https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719.2017.1366499.

Adejonwo, O. A., B. O. Omitoyin, O. A. Ogunwole, E. K. Ajani, and S. A. Omitoyin, "Chemical Characterisation and Assessment of Two Mushroom Stalks as Prebiotics for (Burchell, 1822)," Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica 54, no. 1, pp. 104-115, https://doi.org/10.2478/ats-2021-0011.

Shah, S. R., C. I. Ukaegbu, H. A. Hamid, and O. R. Alara, "Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of the Stems of Flammulina velutipes and Hypsizygus tessellatus (White and Brown Var.) Extracted with Different Solvents," Journal of Food Measurement and Characterisation 12 (April 2018): 1947-1961, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11694-018-9810-8.


DOI: 10.33102/mjosht.v9i2.334
Published: 2023-09-12

How to Cite

SAYEED IBRAHIM, H. S., & NUR HUDA FAUJAN. (2023). Potential Use of Underutilised Mushroom Stems in Meat Products and Meat Analogues: A Mini Review. Malaysian Journal of Science Health & Technology, 9(2), 147–152. https://doi.org/10.33102/mjosht.v9i2.334



Food Science & Nutrition