Nutritional Content and Bioactive Compounds of Banana Peel and Its Potential Utilization: A Review

Total Views: 910 | Total Downloads: 554


  • Nur Anis Insyirah Muhammad Ansari Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
  • Nurzazarina Ramly Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
  • Nur Huda Faujan Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
  • Norlelawati Arifin Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.



banana peel, nutritional content, bioactive compound, phenolic compounds, waste disposal


Banana is one of the popular fruits among consumers due to their excellent nutritional value. However, banana peel, the fruit’s main secondary product or a significant by-product in banana processing, is generally abandoned and discarded as waste. Banana peels are rich in nutritional content such as protein, carbohydrates, fat, moisture, and ash contents. They are also high in bioactive compounds such as phenolic (flavonoids) and various types of carotenoids (lutein, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene). Phenolic compounds effectively protect the human body against various diseases, specifically oxidative stress-related diseases. Due to all the advantages of banana peels, plenty of potential utilization could be explored, including citric acid production by Aspergillus niger, traditional medicine, foods, and pharmaceutical industries, as well as dietary incorporation. Thus, this paper discussed the nutritional contents and bioactive compounds of banana peel and their potential utilization as food additives, supplements, and pharmaceuticals. This could then help to minimize the number of agro-solid waste disposal from the food industry by processing the waste into value-added products.  


Download data is not yet available.


Jain, Sarika, David Newman, Ricardo Cepeda-Márquez, and Kathrin Zeller. "Global food waste management: an implementation guide for cities." World Biogas Association, London 143 (2018).

Blakeney, M. (2019). Food loss and food waste: Causes and solutions. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Sagar, Narashans Alok, Sunil Pareek, Sunil Sharma, Elhadi M. Yahia, and Maria Gloria Lobo. "Fruit and vegetable waste: Bioactive compounds, their extraction, and possible utilization." Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety 17, no. 3 (2018): 512-531.

Sidhu, Jiwan S., and Tasleem A. Zafar. "Bioactive compounds in banana fruits and their health benefits." Food Quality and Safety 2, no. 4 (2018): 183-188.

Vu, Hang T., Christopher J. Scarlett, and Quan V. Vuong. "Phenolic compounds within banana peel and their potential uses: A review." Journal of Functional Foods 40 (2018): 238-248.

Ali, Akhtar, Yasmeen M. Bashmil, Jeremy J. Cottrell, Hafiz AR Suleria, and Frank R. Dunshea. "LC-MS/MS-QTOF screening and identification of phenolic compounds from australian grown herbs and their antioxidant potential." Antioxidants 10, no. 11 (2021): 1770.

Puraikalan, Yamunadevi. "Characterization of proximate, phytochemical and antioxidant analysis of banana (Musa sapientum) peels/skins and objective evaluation of ready to eat/cook product made with banana peels." Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal 6, no. 2 (2018): 382-391.

Singh, Balwinder, Jatinder Pal Singh, Amritpal Kaur, and Narpinder Singh. "Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits–A review." Food chemistry 206 (2016): 1-11.

Hassan, H. F., U. F. Hassan, O. A. Usher, A. B. Ibrahim, and N. N. Tabe. "Exploring the potentials of banana (musa sapietum) peels in feed formulation." International Journal of Advanced Research in Chemical Science 5, no. 5 (2018): 10-14.

Abd Ghafar, Siti Wahidah. "Food waste in Malaysia: trends, current practices and key challenges." Centre of Promotion Technology, MARDI, Persiaran MARDI-UPM (2017).

Mohapatra, Debabandya, Sabyasachi Mishra, and Namrata Sutar. "Banana and its by-product utilisation: an overview." (2010).

Fahrasmane, Louis, Berthe Parfait, and Guylène Aurore. "Bananas, a source of compounds with health properties." In III International Symposium on Human Health Effects of Fruits and Vegetables-FAVHEALTH 2009 1040, pp. 75-82. 2009.

Oguntoyinbo, O., J. A. V. Olumurewa, and O. S. Omoba. "Chemical composition, dietary fiber and antioxidant activity of fermented ripe banana peel flour." J. Food. Stab 3, no. 2 (2020): 27-42.

Syukriani, L., S. Febjislami, D. S. Lubis, R. Hidayati, A. Asben, I. Suliansyah, and J. Jamsari. "Physicochemical characterization of peel, flesh and banana fruit cv. raja [Musa paradisiaca]." In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 741, no. 1, p. 012006. IOP Publishing, 2021.

Abou-Arab, Azza A., and Ferial M. Abu-Salem. "Nutritional and anti-Nutritional composition of banana peels as influenced by microwave drying methods." International Journal of Nutrition and Food Engineering 11, no. 12 (2018): 845-852.

Joshi, Rucha Vinay. "Low Calorie Biscuits from Banana Peel Pulp." Journal of Solid Waste Technology & Management 33, no. 3 (2007).

Iftikhar, Muhammad, Said Wahab, Naveed ul Haq, Saima Naz Malik, Safa Amber, Najeeb Ullah Taran, and Shams Ur Rehman. "12. Utilization of citrus plant waste (peel) for the development of food product." Pure and Applied Biology (PAB) 8, no. 3 (2019): 1991-1998.

Masoodi, F. A., Bhawana Sharma, and G. S. Chauhan. "Use of apple pomace as a source of dietary fiber in cakes." Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 57 (2002): 121-128.

Mahajan, Deepak, Z. F. Bhat, and Sunil Kumar. "Pomegranate (Punica granatum) rind extract as a novel preservative in cheese." Food Bioscience 12 (2015): 47-53.

Chan, Chak-Lun, Ren-you Gan, Nagendra P. Shah, and Harold Corke. "Enhancing antioxidant capacity of Lactobacillus acidophilus-fermented milk fortified with pomegranate peel extracts." Food bioscience 26 (2018): 185-192.

El-Nashi, Hafssa B., Abdel Fattah Abdel Karim Abdel Fattah, Nadia R. Abdel Rahman, and M. M. Abd El-Razik. "Quality characteristics of beef sausage containing pomegranate peels during refrigerated storage." Annals of Agricultural Sciences 60, no. 2 (2015): 403-412.

Ismail, Tariq, Saeed Akhtar, Muhammad Riaz, and Amir Ismail. "Effect of pomegranate peel supplementation on nutritional, organoleptic and stability properties of cookies." International journal of food sciences and nutrition 65, no. 6 (2014): 661-666.

Marchiani, Roberta, Marta Bertolino, Simona Belviso, Manuela Giordano, Daniela Ghirardello, Luisa Torri, Maria Piochi, and Giuseppe Zeppa. "Yogurt enrichment with grape pomace: Effect of grape cultivar on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties." Journal of Food Quality 39, no. 2 (2016): 77-89.

Choonut, Aophat, Makorn Saejong, and Kanokphorn Sangkharak. "The production of ethanol and hydrogen from pineapple peel by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Enterobacter aerogenes." Energy Procedia 52 (2014): 242-249.

Nielsen, S. S. (2010). Determination of Moisture Content. In: Nielsen S.S. (eds) Food Analysis Laboratory Manual. Food Science Texts Series. Springer, Boston, MA, pp 17–27.

Ali, Md Yousuf, Abu Ali Ibn Sina, Shahad Saif Khandker, Lutfun Neesa, E. M. Tanvir, Alamgir Kabir, Md Ibrahim Khalil, and Siew Hua Gan. "Nutritional composition and bioactive compounds in tomatoes and their impact on human health and disease: A review." Foods 10, no. 1 (2020): 45.

Romelle, Feumba Dibanda, A. Rani, and Ragu Sai Manohar. "Chemical composition of some selected fruit peels." European Journal of Food Science and Technology 4, no. 4 (2016):

Pyar, Hassan, and K. K. Peh. "Chemical compositions of banana peels (Musa sapientum) fruits cultivated in Malaysia using proximate analysis." Res. J. Chem. Environ 22, no. 2 (2018): 108-111.

Anhwange, B. A., T. J. Ugye, and T. D. Nyiaatagher. "Chemical composition of Musa sapientum (banana) peels." Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 8, no. 6 (2009): 437-442.

Tsado, A. N., N. R. Okoli, A. G. Jiya, D. Gana, B. Saidu, R. Zubairu, and I. Z. Salihu. "Proximate, Minerals, and Amino Acid Compositions of Banana and Plantain Peels." BIOMED Natural and Applied Science 1, no. 01 (2021): 032-042.

Solayman, Md, Md Asiful Islam, Sudip Paul, Yousuf Ali, Md Ibrahim Khalil, Nadia Alam, and Siew Hua Gan. "Physicochemical properties, minerals, trace elements, and heavy metals in honey of different origins: a comprehensive review." Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 15, no. 1 (2016): 219-233.

Karasawa, Marines Marli Gniech, and Chakravarthi Mohan. "Fruits as prospective reserves of bioactive compounds: a review." Natural products and bioprospecting 8 (2018): 335-346.

Lin, Derong, Mengshi Xiao, Jingjing Zhao, Zhuohao Li, Baoshan Xing, Xindan Li, Maozhu Kong et al. "An overview of plant phenolic compounds and their importance in human nutrition and management of type 2 diabetes." Molecules 21, no. 10 (2016): 1374.

Babbar, Neha, Harinder Singh Oberoi, Simranjeet Kaur Sandhu, and Vinod Kumar Bhargav. "Influence of different solvents in extraction of phenolic compounds from vegetable residues and their evaluation as natural sources of antioxidants." Journal of food science and technology 51 (2014): 2568-2575.

Shinichi, Someya, Yoshiki Yumiko, and Okubo Kazuyoshi. "Antioxidant compounds from bananas (Musa Cavendish)." Food Chemistry 79, no. 3 (2002): 351-354.

Fatemeh, S. R., R. Saifullah, F. M. A. Abbas, and M. E. Azhar. "Total phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of banana pulp and peel flours: influence of variety and stage of ripeness." International Food Research Journal 19, no. 3 (2012).

Akhtar, Saeed, Tariq Ismail, Daniele Fraternale, and Piero Sestili. "Pomegranate peel and peel extracts: Chemistry and food features." Food chemistry 174 (2015): 417-425.

Mattila, Pirjo, Jarkko Hellström, and Riitta Törrönen. "Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages." Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 54, no. 19 (2006): 7193-7199.

Schieber, Andreas, Wieland Ullrich, and Reinhold Carle. "Characterization of polyphenols in mango puree concentrate by HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection." Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 1, no. 2 (2000): 161-166.

Panwar, Nandini. 2021. Fruit Peels Health Benefits And Potential Uses: A Review. Edited by Rajeev Kumar. International Journal of Current Advanced Research 9 (06(E)): 22653–56.

Pathak, Pranav D., Sachin A. Mandavgane, and Bhaskar D. Kulkarni. "Fruit peel waste: characterization and its potential uses." Current Science (2017): 444-454.

Srividhya, M., K. Ramanathan, and N. Krishnanand. "Efficacy of citrus fruit peel extracts against pathogens causing gastrointestinal disorders." International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 5, no. 4 (2013): 160-163.

Ehiowemwenguan, G., A. O. Emoghene, and J. E. Inetianbor. "Antibacterial and phytochemical analysis of Banana fruit peel." IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 4, no. 8 (2014): 18-25.

Oyeyinka, Barnabas Oluwatomide, and Anthony Jide Afolayan. "Potentials of Musa species fruits against oxidative stress-induced and diet-linked chronic diseases: In vitro and in vivo implications of micronutritional factors and dietary secondary metabolite compounds." Molecules 25, no. 21 (2020): 5036.

Sheikhzadeh, Mahya, Vahid Hakimzadeh, and Mohammad Reza Abedi. "Carotenoids extraction optimization of lutein-based banana peel." Journal of Applied Environment and Biological Science, 4, no. 11S (2015): 213-217.

Aquino, César Fernandes, Luiz Carlos Chamhum Salomão, Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant’ana, Sônia Machado Rocha Ribeiro, Dalmo Lopes De Siqueira, and Paulo Roberto Cecon. "Carotenoids in the pulp and peel of bananas from 15 cultivars in two ripening stages." Revista Ceres 65 (2018): 217-226.

Septiany, Gabriela Johana, Widya Dwi Rukmi Putri, Ida Nur Panca, Heriyanto Heriyanto, and Leenawaty Limantara. "Carotenoid analysis of ripe banana flesh and peel from three cultivars of Banana." Indonesian Journal of Natural Pigments 1, no. 2 (2019): 60-60.

Khairan, K., A. Makstum, and C. Yulvizar. "Utilization of banana peel waste for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger." In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 364, no. 1, p. 012005. IOP Publishing, 2019.

Kareem, S. O., and R. A. Rahman. "Utilization of banana peels for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger." Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 4, no. 4 (2013): 384-387.

Rabbani, Golam H., Telahun Teka, Badiuz Zaman, N. Majid, Makhduma Khatun, and George J. Fuchs. "Clinical studies in persistent diarrhea: dietary management with green banana or pectin in Bangladeshi children." Gastroenterology 121, no. 3 (2001): 554-560.

Imam, Mohammad Zafar, and Saleha Akter. "Musa paradisiaca L. and Musa sapientum L.: A phytochemical and pharmacological review." Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Issue (2011): 14-20.

Kurtoglu, Gulizar, and Sibel Yildiz. "Extraction of fructo-oligosaccaride components from banana peels." Gazi university journal of science 24, no. 4 (2011): 877-882.

Kumar, KP Sampath, Debjit Bhowmik, S. Duraivel, and M. Umadevi. "Traditional and medicinal uses of banana." Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 1, no. 3 (2012): 51-63.

Pereira, Aline, and Marcelo Maraschin. "Banana (Musa spp) from peel to pulp: ethnopharmacology, source of bioactive compounds and its relevance for human health." Journal of ethnopharmacology 160 (2015): 149-163.

Cheng, Jin-Chun, Fang Dai, Bo Zhou, Li Yang, and Zhong-Li Liu. "Antioxidant activity of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in human low-density lipoprotein: mechanism and structure–activity relationship." Food chemistry 104, no. 1 (2007): 132-139.

Anal, Anil Kumar, Sirorat Jaisanti, and Athapol Noomhorm. "Enhanced yield of phenolic extracts from banana peels (Musa acuminat a Colla AAA) and cinnamon barks (Cinnamomum varum) and their antioxidative potentials in fish oil." Journal of Food Science and Technology 51 (2014): 2632-2639.

Devatkal, Suresh K., Ritu Kumboj, and Devosmita Paul. "Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat." Journal of food science and technology 51 (2014): 387-391.

Wu, Hongmei, Feng Xu, Junjie Hao, Ye Yang, and Xiangpei Wang. "Antihyperglycemic activity of banana (Musa nana Lour.) peel and its active ingredients in alloxan-induced diabetic mice." In 3rd International Conference on Material, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (IC3ME 2015), pp. 231-238. Atlantis Press, 2015.

Kurhade, Ankeeta, Sonal Patil, Sachin K. Sonawane, Jyotsna S. Waghmare, and Shalini S. Arya. "Effect of banana peel powder on bioactive constituents and microstructural quality of chapatti: unleavened Indian flat bread." Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 10 (2016): 32-41.

Emaga, Thomas Happi, Sebastien N. Ronkart, Christelle Robert, Bernard Wathelet, and Michel Paquot. "Characterisation of pectins extracted from banana peels (Musa AAA) under different conditions using an experimental design." Food chemistry 108, no. 2 (2008): 463-471.

Priscilla, D., and M. Gnaneel. "Production of citric acid from banana peel using Aspergillus niger." Int J Creative Res Thoughts (IJCRT) 8, no. 2 (2020): 547-558.

Abbas, Naaz, Wardah Safdar, Sakhawat Ali, Shahnaz Choudhry, and Sana Ilahi. "Citric acid production from Aspergillus niger using banana peel." International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 7, no. 1 (2016): 1580-1583.


DOI: 10.33102/mjosht.v9i1.313
Published: 2023-04-11

How to Cite

Muhammad Ansari , N. A. I., Ramly, N., Faujan , N. H., & Arifin, N. (2023). Nutritional Content and Bioactive Compounds of Banana Peel and Its Potential Utilization: A Review. Malaysian Journal of Science Health & Technology, 9(1), 74–86.



Food Science & Nutrition