Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Preference of Keropok Lekor with Partial Replacement of Fish Flesh with Oyster Mushroom

Total Views: 111 | Total Downloads: 110


  • Lokman Iqmal Afifi Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), 71800, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
  • Norlelawati Arifin Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), 71800, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
  • Nur Huda Faujan Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), 71800, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
  • Nurzazarina Ramly Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), 71800, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.



Keropok lekor characteristics; Oyster Mushroom cracker; Cracker Preference; Vegetables Cracker; Nutritious Cracker


Keropok lekor is a famous fish-based traditional food from Terengganu, Malaysia. Due to the progressive cultivation activity of oyster mushrooms in Malaysia and their high nutritional values, they were selected to be incorporated in keropok lekor formulations to replace a partial percentage of fish flesh. In this study, the determination of nutritional composition and physical as well as evaluation of sensory acceptability of oyster mushroom-containing keropok lekor were carried out. Three formulations of keropok lekor with different ratios of fish flesh to oyster mushroom were prepared as follows: control (100:0), sample A (75:25), and sample B (50:50). In terms of nutritional composition, the results found that the value of ash, moisture, and carbohydrate contents of keropok lekor with oyster mushroom substitutions were significantly higher (P<0.05) than control keropok lekor. However, the experimental keropok lekor (sample A and sample B) had significantly lower (P<0.05) protein and fat contents than the control sample. The highest value of hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness of the control sample (100% fish flesh) was obtained in comparison to keropok lekor substituted with oyster mushroom. In the context of colour, the value of L* (whiteness) increased by substituting oyster mushrooms into keropok lekor formulations due to the light colour of the mushroom. The 9-point hedonic scale test indicated that consumers’ preferences for experimental keropok lekor (sample A and sample B) were significantly (P<0.05) higher scores as compared to the control sample in terms of texture, taste, and overall acceptance. In contrast, appearance, colour, and aroma attributes obtained lower scores. The findings also suggested that replacing fish flesh with oyster mushrooms in keropok lekor has great potential to be commercialized in the market and represented as a new variety of keropok lekor in the food industry.


Download data is not yet available.


Omar, M., Adzahan, N. M., Ghazali, H. M., Karim, R., Halim, N. H. A., & Karim, M. K. A. "Sustaining traditional food: consumers’ perceptions on physical characteristics of keropok lekor or fish snack." International Food Research Journal, January 2011.

Wan-Hamat, H., Lani, M. N., Hamzah, Y., Alias, R., Hassan, Z., & Mahat, N. A. "Survival of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in vacuum-packed keropok lekor: Food safety alert among SME keropok lekor producers." Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 103–115, 2020.

Chan, S. Y., & Anuar, T. F. T. "Packaging Innovation as a Commodification Excellence Factor for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Case Study: Frozen Keropok Lekor Packaging in Kelantan." International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Management Practice, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 1–15, March 2019.

Noraien, M. Keropok lekor Terengganu. Terengganu: Penerbit Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 2015.

Rosmiza, M. Z., Davies, W., Cr, R. A., Jabil, M., & Mazdi, M. "Prospects for Increasing Commercial Mushroom Production in Malaysia: Challenges and Opportunities." Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, January 2016. doi: 10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n1s1p406.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). "OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2015-2024." 2015. Link

Wirth, S., et al. "The regulator of G-protein signalling Thn1 links pheromone response to volatile production in Schizophyllum commune." Environmental Microbiology, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 3684–3699, October 2018. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.14369.

Yang, D., et al. "Tea waste: an effective and economic substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation." Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 680–684, January 2016. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7140.

Sánchez, C. "Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 1321–1337, February 2010. doi: 10.1007/s00253-009-2343-7.

Sánchez, C. "Modern aspects of mushroom culture technology." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 756–762, February 2004. doi: 10.1007/s00253-004-1569-7.

Tolera, K. D., & Abera, S. "Nutritional quality of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) as affected by osmotic pretreatments and drying methods." Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 989–996, June 2017. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.484.

Cheung, P. Y. K. "Mushrooms as Functional Foods." John Wiley & Sons, Inc. eBooks, August 2008. doi: 10.1002/9780470367285.

Lu, X., Brennan, M. A., Serventi, L., Liu, J., Guan, W., & Brennan, C. S. "Addition of mushroom powder to pasta enhances the antioxidant content and modulates the predictive glycaemic response of pasta." Food Chemistry, vol. 264, pp. 199–209, October 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.04.130.

Olawuyi, I. F., & Lee, W. Y. "Quality and antioxidant properties of functional rice muffins enriched with shiitake mushroom and carrot pomace." International Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 2321–2328, July 2019. doi: 10.1111/ijfs.14155.

Rosli, W. I. W., & Solihah, M. A. "Nutritive qualities of patties prepared with mixture of meat and oyster mushroom." International Food Research Journal, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 2001–2006, January 2014.

Vallée, M., et al. "Physical, Predictive Glycaemic Response and Antioxidative Properties of Black Ear Mushroom (Auricularia auricula) Extrudates." Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 301–307, September 2017. doi: 10.1007/s11130-017-0621-6.

AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). Official Methods of Analysis, 18th ed. Washington D.C., Washington, 2005.

Tamsen, M., Shekarchizadeh, H., & Soltanizadeh, N. "Evaluation of wheat flour substitution with amaranth flour on chicken nugget properties." Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft & Technologie, vol. 91, pp. 580–587, May 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2018.02.001.

Fatma, N., Metusalach, & Taslim, N. A. "The protein and albumin contents in some species of marine and brackish water fish of South Sulawesi, Indonesia." AACL Bioflux, vol. 13, no. 4, 2020.

Husain, H., & Huda-Faujan, N. "Quality Evaluation of Imitation Chicken Nuggets from Grey Oyster Mushroom Stems and Chickpea Flour." Malaysian Applied Biology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 61–69, October 2020. doi: 10.55230/mabjournal. v49i3.1542.

Wu, X., et al. "Effects of Pleurotus ostreatus on Physicochemical Properties and Residual Nitrite of the Pork Sausage." Coatings, vol. 12, no. 4, p. 484, April 2022. doi: 10.3390/coatings12040484.

Oluwafemi, G. I., Seidu, K. T., & Fagbemi, T. N. "Chemical composition, functional properties and protein fractionation of edible oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)." Annals Food Science and Technology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2015.

Rosli, W. I. W., et al. "Fat content and EPA and DHA levels of selected marine, freshwater fish and shellfish species from the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia." International Food Research Journal, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 815–821, January 2012.

Yahya, F. H., & Ting, H. T. "Effect of Different Ratios of Chicken Meat to Fresh Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) on the Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Acceptability of Sausages." International Journal on Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 7–14, June 2020. doi: 10.46676/ij-fanres.v1i1.2.

Sun, X., & Holley, R. A. "Factors Influencing Gel Formation by Myofibrillar Proteins in Muscle Foods." Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 33–51, January 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00137.x.

Huda, N., Alistair, T. L. J., Lim, H. W., & Nopianti, R. "Some Quality Characteristics of Malaysian Commercial Fish Sausage." Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 798–803, August 2012. doi: 10.3923/pjn.2012.798.803.

Syuhairah, A., Huda, N., Syahariza, Z. A., & Fazilah, A. "Effects of Vegetable Incorporation on Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Sausages." Asian Journal of Poultry Science, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 117–125, March 2016. doi: 10.3923/ajpsaj.2016.117.125.

Pereira, A. G. T., Ramos, E., Teixeira, J. T., Cardoso, G. P., Ramos, A. D. L. S., & Fontes, P. C. R. "Effects of the addition of mechanically deboned poultry meat and collagen fibers on quality characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages." Meat Science, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 519–525, December 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.05.022.

de Oliveira Filho, P. R. C., Netto, F. M., Ramos, K. K., Trindade, M. A., & Viegas, E. M. M. "Elaboration of sausage using minced fish of Nile tilapia filleting waste." Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1383–1391, December 2010. doi: 10.1590/s1516-89132010000600015.

Bourne, M. C. "Texture Profile Analysis." Food Technology, vol. 32, pp. 62–66, January 1978.

Ly, B. K., Dyer, E., Feig, J. L., Chien, A. L., & Del Bino, S. "Research Techniques Made Simple: Cutaneous Colorimetry: A Reliable Technique for Objective Skin Color Measurement." Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 3-12.e1, January 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2019.11.003.

Bao, H. N. D., Ushio, H., & Ohshima, T. "Antioxidative Activity and Antidiscoloration Efficacy of Ergothioneine in Mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) Extract Added to Beef and Fish Meats." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 21, pp. 10032–10040, October 2008. doi: 10.1021/jf8017063.

Chaijan, M., Benjakul, S., Visessanguan, W., & Faustman, C. "Changes of lipids in sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) muscle during iced storage." Food Chemistry, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 83–91, January 2006. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.022.

Bao, H. N. D., & Ohshima, T. "Mushroom feed additive stabilizes lipid, color of yellowtail meat." Responsible Seafood Advocate, 2010.

Selvi, S., Umadevi, P., Murugan, S., & Senapathy, J. G. "Anticancer potential evoked by Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica using T24 urinary bladder cancer cell line." African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 37, pp. 7279–7285, 2011.

Aishah, M. S., & Rosli, W. I. W. "The effect of addition of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) on nutrient composition and sensory acceptation of selected wheat- and rice-based products." International Food Research Journal, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 183–188, January 2013.

Shewfelt, R. L., & Brückner, B. "Fruit & vegetable quality: an integrated view." Technomic Press, Lancaster PA, pp. 144–157, January 2000.

Venkateshwarlu, G., Chandravadana, M. V., & Tewari, R. "Volatile flavour components of some edible mushrooms (Basidiomycetes)." Flavour and Fragrance Journal, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 191–194, May 1999. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1099-1026(199905/06)14:3.

Maga, J. A. "Mushroom flavor." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–4, January 1981. doi: 10.1021/jf00103a001.

Politowicz, J., et al. "Volatile composition and sensory profile of oyster mushroom as affected by drying method." Drying Technology, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 685–696, March 2018. doi: 10.1080/07373937.2016.1274903.

Sridhar, K., & Deshmukh, S. K. Advances in Macrofungi: Pharmaceuticals and Cosmeceuticals (Progress in Mycological Research), 1st ed. CRC Press, 2021.

Adebayo, E. A., & Oloke, J. K. "Oyster mushroom (pleurotus species); A natural functional food." The Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 254–264, December 2017. doi: 10.15414/jmbfs.2017/

Moliszewska, E. "Mushroom flavour." Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, vol. 10, pp. 80–88, November 2014. doi: 10.2478/fobio-2014-0007.


DOI: 10.33102/mjosht.v9i2.357
Published: 2023-09-12

How to Cite

Iqmal Afifi, L., Arifin, N., Faujan, N. H., & Ramly, N. (2023). Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Preference of Keropok Lekor with Partial Replacement of Fish Flesh with Oyster Mushroom . Malaysian Journal of Science Health & Technology, 9(2), 128–135.



Food Science & Nutrition