Exploring the Experience of Klang Valley Youths on Fake Braces by Bogus Dentists

Total Views: 926 | Total Downloads: 631


  • Nurul Izza Idaham Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), 55100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Wan Mohamad Nasir Wan Othman Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), 55100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Hasyimah Hassan Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), 55100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia




The use of fake dental braces provided by bogus dentists is potentially dangerous to users' oral health. However, many people, especially youths, still fancy the use of these fake braces. This study aimed to explore the experience of youths from Klang Valley on the use of fake braces. This qualitative study used the phenomenological approach by interviewing ten youths aged between 16 - 27 years old who were from Klang Valley and wore fake braces. The tenth respondent formed the point of saturation of information in data collection. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore their experience in using fake braces. The interviews were conducted on the phone. Each interview lasted for a period of 10-15 minutes, and the conversations were recorded. The recordings were then transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis of the content was used to develop the conceptual framework. Five major themes were discerned related to the respondents' views on the use of fake braces: a) physical appearance of teeth, b) influencing factors, c) seeking services of bogus dentists, d) procedures performed, and e) outcome of fake braces services. For youths with physical misalignment of teeth, fake braces are enticing due to the accessibility, availability, and affordability of bogus dentists. However, not all outcomes were perceived as favourable. Some perceived no change in the outcome, whilst most felt that fake braces led to worse consequences. This study's findings can provide the content for developing oral health promotion modules to check this unsafe practice.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Wan Mohamad Nasir Wan Othman, Faculty of Dentistry, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), 55100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Prof. Emeritus Dato' Dr. Wan Mohamad Nasir Wan Othman

Professor, Department of Periodontology & Community Oral Health


S. Alfuriji, N. Alhazmi, N. Alhamlan, A. Al-Ehaideb, M. Alruwaithi, N. Alkatheeri, and A. Geevarghese, "The effect of orthodontic therapy on periodontal health: a review of the literature", International Journal of Dentistry, pp. 1-8, 2014.

N. Mansor. and F. Abdullah. (2015) Fake Braces - PORTAL MyHEALTH. [Online] Available:


S. Ramalingam, "Dental enforcement challenges", MDC BULLETIN, vol. 15(2), pp.13-15, 2019.

Government of Malaysia. Youth Societies and Youth Development Act (Amendment) 2019 (Act 668). [Online] Available: https://www.cljlaw.com/files/bills/pdf/2019/MY_FS_BIL_2019_12.pdf

R. Wahab, S. Hasan, N. Yamin, and Z. Ibrahim, "Awareness of fake braces usage among Y- Generations", Journal of International Dental and Medical Research, vol. 12(2), pp. 663-666, 2019.

S. Taibah and F. Al-Hummayani, "Effect of malocclusion on the selfesteem of adolescents", Journal of Orthodontic Science, vol. 6(4), p. 123, 2017.

D. Pfordten. (2021) Fake dentists are making a comeback - at the unlikeliest of places on The Star. [Online] Available:


M. Jaapar. (2019) Illegal dental practice: risks of dental treatment from street dentists – PORTAL MyHEALTH. [Online] Available:


M. A. Pereira, F. M. de Souza, P. A. de Queiroz, D. D. C. Vilela, & J. A. Cardoso, Illegal Practice of Orthodontics Exercising and Its Clinical Implications: Case Report, Revista Bahiana de Odontologia, vol. 7(2), pp. 126-131, 2016.

P. Mulimani and N. Vaid, "Through the murky waters of 'web-based orthodontics', can evidence navigate the ship?". APOS Trends in Orthodontics, vol. 7, pp. 207-210, 2017.

K. V. Reddy, V. Bansal, P. K. Singh, A. Bhambal, M. Gupta, and S. Gupta, "Perceptions regarding treatment by dental quacks and selfrated oral health among the residents of Bhopal City, Central India", Journal of Indian Assoc Public Health Dent., vol. 15, pp. 84-88, 2017.

N. Vaid, "Commoditizing orthodontics:' Being as good as your dumbest competitor?'’. APOS Trends in Orthodontics, vol. 6, pp.121- 122, 2016.

N. A. M. Nor, W. Wan Hassan, M. Mohamed Makhbul, and Z. Mohd Yusof, "Fake braces by quacks in Malaysia: an expert opinion", Ann Dent UM, vol. 27(6), pp.33-40, 2020.

Government of Malaysia. Dental Act 1971 (Act 51), Government Printers: Kuala Lumpur, 1971.

Government of Malaysia. Private Healthcare Facilities and Services Act, Government Printers: Kuala Lumpur, 1988.

M. F. Che Musa, Y. R. Hassan, H. Mohd Suffian, M. R. A. A Rahman, and M. H. Mahmood (2019). Dangers of fake dentists – NST Online [Online] Available:


M. Len-Ríos. (2012) For young adults, appearance matters more than health, study suggests on ScienceDaily. [Online]. Available:


L. Samsonyanová and Z. Broukal, "A systematic review of individual motivational factors in orthodontic treatment: facial attractiveness as the main motivational factor in orthodontic treatment", International Journal of Dentistry, pp. 1-7, 2014.

F. Hanapiah, V. Nedunchelian, S. Datta, D. Lee, B. Ghazali, S. Syed AlJunid, A. Afzan, S. Atan, and P. Kathiravan. (2017) Fake dentistry: look similar but not the same. [Online] Available:


R. Shah, J. Collins, T. Hodge, and E. Laing, "A national study of cross infection control: 'are we clean enough?'", British Dental Journal, vol. 207(6), pp. 267-274, 2009.

Guidelines on Infection Control in Dental Practice, Malaysian Dental Council, 2017.

S. Righellis and R. Ikeda. (2021) Parts of braces - Righellis & Associates Orthodontics for Children and Adults. [Online] Available:


S. Nasir, N. Abu Bakar, and R. Samad, "Elemental and microstructural analysis of fake, real, and standard orthodontic brackets", Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1073(052002), p. 1-6, 2018.

W. H. Tan. (2019) Braces cost in Malaysia - private versus government clinics - Tan Dental Surgery. [Online] Available:


R. Moresca, "Orthodontic treatment time: can it be shortened?", Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 23(6), pp. 90-105, 2018.

R. Shah, N. AlQuraini, and S. Cunningham, "Parents' perceptions of outcomes of orthodontic treatment in adolescent patients: a qualitative study", European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 41(3), pp. 301-307, 2019.

A. Kumar, D. Ganapathy. R. M. Visalakshi, "Awareness on functional orthodontic treatment among dental students in Chennai city", Drug Invention Today, vol. 12(5), pp. 1023-1026, 2019.

K. Klaus, P. Stark, T. Serbesis, H. Pancherz, and S. Ruf, "Excellent versus unacceptable orthodontic results: influencing factors", European Journal of Orthodontics, vol. 39(6), pp. 615-621, 2017.


DOI: 10.33102/mjosht.v7i1.140
Published: 2021-03-30

How to Cite

Idaham, N. I., Wan Othman, W. M. N., & Hassan, H. (2021). Exploring the Experience of Klang Valley Youths on Fake Braces by Bogus Dentists. Malaysian Journal of Science Health & Technology, 7(1), 69–74. https://doi.org/10.33102/mjosht.v7i1.140